For the safe cultivation of peach in its area, it is necessary to take into account a number of subtleties and rules. The crop yield depends on climatic conditions and care, so gardeners need to carefully monitor the tree and provide it with proper care. First of all, it is worth determining what diseases and pests of peach are.
The most common lesions of peach foliage include:
The first disease is especially dangerous for peach, as it affects both leaves and other parts of the plant, including flowers, ovaries, buds and shoots. In the early stages, the disease manifests itself in the form of brown spots with a dark red border. The affected tissue begins to die and fall away, which provokes the appearance of holes in the foliage. Due to the specific symptoms, the disease is also called hole spotting.
The causative agent of the problem is a fungus that penetrates the tissue structures of the tree, forming a mycelium. Soon, microorganisms penetrate peach cells and contribute to their death.
The fungus is not afraid of freezing temperatures and tolerates winter freely.
Therefore, if at the beginning of spring you noticed that the young leaves were affected by the disease, it is necessary to remove them in order to protect the healthy parts.
Curliness is another dangerous disease that develops in humid conditions with heavy rainfall. First of all, leaves are affected, which acquire a purple hue. After a few days, the infected parts of the peach will turn gray and the disease will begin to affect the shoots. Soon, the leaves will curl, and the plant will cease to bear fruit.
Powdery mildew is one of the most dangerous and widespread lesions of garden crops. Its development is accompanied by the appearance of a white coating, which is easily erased by a finger in the initial stages, but then coarsens and acquires a brown tint.
As a result, the growth of shoots slows down, and they begin to die. The presence of sharp suction cups in the mycelium contributes to the rapid absorption of nutrients from the tree, which leads to the death of the culture.
To prevent such consequences, it is necessary to destroy the affected leaves, shoots and fruits in time.
An equally vulnerable part of the peach tree is the trunk. Often it affects cytosporosis, causing damage to the layer between wood and bark. The progression of the disease leads to the appearance of dark brown spots and smudges on the cortex. The first spots are formed at the tops of the shoots, and then gradually move down, capturing the entire trunk and skeletal branches. In case of damage to the trunk, the peach is in danger of death.
Having noticed traces of cytosporosis, it is necessary to immediately remove the branches or shorten them to a length of 0.8-1.5 m, provided that there are no infected parts below the cut. All affected elements should be burned away from the garden, as the infection can spread over long distances.
Peach fruits are exposed to fruit rot or moniliosis (monolial burn). The disease is accompanied by the formation of brown spots on the fruits, which gradually sprawl and form concentric circles.
Spores of monoliasis are quickly transferred with the wind and multiply on the site in cool and damp weather with high humidity.
In order to prevent the disease, it is enough to regularly prune the tree to exclude excessive crown density. Then the trees are sprayed with Topaz and Topsin, which destroy the infection.
In addition to common diseases, peach is attacked by pests. Among them are aphids, weevils, various mites and fruit moths. To get rid of these parasites, it is necessary to treat garden crops with insecticides and carry out simple preventive measures.